Psychology (28)

according to robbins

Types Of Experiments

  1. Conducted in laboratory
  2. Conducted in tiled enviornment-sunjects everyday life
  3. Conducted in during naturally occuriing events.
  4. Disadvantages

    Because of the artificiality of situation the subject may not always act like as they would in real life.


    Can be replicated, repeated and verified.

    Methods of data collection for development studies

    Because of the demand of measuring behavioral change acrons different ages, several unique methods are used. The most frequently ised are cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    Cross Sectional Study

    In a cross sectional study people of different ages are assessed on one occasion. This study thus provide information about differences in development between age groups.


    To study the development of intellectual ability in adulthood a sample from different ages 25, 45, 65 can be given to them to compare their scores at the end. the researcher can then determine wheather average IQ scores differ in each group.


    Its advantages include the speed with which the studies can be conducted and the economy.


    Its advantages are that it looks at group averages thus, the individual differences are overlooked. people with different ages, being born in different generations have influence on their intellectual and developmental ability but the crooss-sectional studies can not eliminate these generational influences.

    Longitudinal Studies

    In this type of study the same people are studied again through different ages to learn about the developmental changes occurring in them with age.

    These studies assess changes in behavior overtime whereas cross-sectional studies assess differences among groups of people.


    To test the intellectual ability of 20 years oldson an IQ test can be given to them and then again at all the age of 40 and then agin to the same people when aged 60 this will show how intelligence varied with age and how development has occurred, requires a lot of time and effort also it is expensive

    "Practice effect" of the tests takeers can make them do better in future tests as they would have become 'Test-Wise'.

    Sequential Studies

    To overcome the drawbacks of both, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, sequential studeis are evolved.

    It examines a number of age groups and at several points in life. the resuluts are analyised to determine the differences that show up with age for the different groups of subjects.

    Provides more realistics assessment than either the cross-sectional method (which tends to over-estimate the IQ ) decline with age.


    Studying a group of 3,5 and 7 years old every six months for a period of several years to find out the specific effects of age on development and other possible influential factors.

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Theory of Emotional Intelligence:

Gardner’s theory contains categories for social intelligence like inter-personal skills and intra-personal skills emotional intelligence can be defined the set of skills required to accurately assess and express emotions, for self awareness and social skills emotional intelligence is needed, it enables a person to know what other people are going through and what they are feeling so that the person knows how to interact with them, emotional intelligence can explain why some people who score very low on traditional intelligence tests and still are quite successful in life.


Shows there are many ways of demonstration intelligent behavior. Explains why poor scores on traditional intelligence tests performs better I life, Mayer salivary Caruso emotional intelligence test (Msceit) to measure 4 aspects of emotional intelligence.

  1. Emotion Perception
  2. Understanding Emotions
  3. Facilitating Thought
  4. Managing Emotions

Consists of 141 items for 17 + older and 30-45 minutes are required for it. Can be wed for predicting behavior such as smoking alcoholism, drugs etc, Example, emotionally intelligent are less likely to smoke drink alcohol.

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  • Observational Learning Modelling
  • Schedules of Positive Reinforcement
  • Principles of Learning | Conditions of Learning
  • Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex | Hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex

  • The central nervous system lies within the skull and the spinal column.

    The central nervous system lies within the skull and the spinal column.

    • 1. Spinal Cord.
    • 2. Brain.
    • Bathed by its own special fluid “cerebrospinal fluid”
    • 1. Nourishment.
    • 2. Protective cushion.
    • Peripheral nervous system transmits messages from parts of the body to central nervous system.



    • According to will elm Wundt, the funds of structure psychology was the study of conscious experienced.
    • His student tichener further explained that....

    Schedules of Positive Reinforcement

    Schedules of Positive Reinforcement

    Continuous Reinforcement:

    Reinforcing the desired behavior every time it is repeated, for example every time a sale is made by the employee, every time he receives a commission of fixed amount,


    A negative consequence that lead to a reduction in the frequency of the behavior which produced it.

    Positive Punishment:

    Adding something negative as a punishment ex. a spanking a child.

    The scope and nature of psychology is to study the soul and mind of humans.

    • Psychology has been around for more than 100 years and now is an established science.
    • It seeks to predict and control human behaviors by understanding the needs caused of the behaviors.
    • Its scope has widened from pate psychology to applied psychology, in the course of time.

    Psychologoy Intelligence

    19 Apr 2017 Written by

    What Is Intelligence.


    What Is Intelligence? Unlike weight, height, and age it cannot be measured Some described it as the ability to solve problems. Other describes it as capacity to adopt and learn from experience.

    Principles / Conditions of Learning:

    • The gradual weakening and disappearance of the tendency to exhibit the conditional response to conditional stimulus, for example when parlor presented only the tone to a previously conditioned dog consistently, the tone gradually lost is....

    Preventive Measures

    19 Apr 2017 Written by

    Preventive Measures:

    Genetic Counseling & Adequate Nutrition:

    Especially when the partners are blood relatives, the risk of a couple having a retardedbaby is dertermined and genetic counseling is provided,