- By Muneeb Jamal
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1. Counseling & Therapy:
2. Psychological tests for Mental Retardation
2.1. Wechsler Intelligence Scales:
Consist of a number of different verbal subtests and the performance subtests for children aged 6-16 => wISC-Wechsler Int. Scale for children verbal subtests measure vocabulary, knowledge (General), verbal abstract reasoning, social judgement, common sense, arittmatic skills, short-term memory and attention. Performance subtests measure non-verbal areas like visual-motor coordination, perceptual organization, visual abstract reasoning and attention to detail.
2.2. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
Abstract and visual reasoning are analysed in SB test. Its score is considered to be the best estimate of general reasoning ability "g".
Six subtests are administered to all age groups.
- Vocabulary - Verbal Reasoning.
- Comprehension - Verbal Reasoning.
- Pattern analysis - Visual /Abstract Reasoning.
- Quantitative - Quantitative Reasoning.
- Bead Memory - Short-term Memory.
- Sentence Memory - Short-term Memory.
Not used widely for measuring mental retardation - usually applied is cases where less than 50 IQ score is expected from the individual.
2.3. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales
Designed to measure adaptive behaviour of individuals from birth to age 90 contains 5 domains whose score measures ad.Behaviour.
- Communication - How the person listens, pays attention, responds.
- Daily Living Skills - How the person eats, dresses, uses time, money.
- Socialization - How the person shows sensitivity / responsibility for others.
- Motor Skills - How the person uses arms/legs/fingers for movement and Maladaptive Behaviour Manipulate objects.
3. Diagnosing Mental Retardation Through Tests
Mental retardation is diagnosed by looking at two main things.
- The ability of a person's brain to learn, think, solve problems and make sense of the world (IQ or Intellectual functioning).
- The ability to live independently - adaptive functioning and evidence that the limitations appeared before 18 intellectual functioning is usually measured by IQ tests people scoring below are considered mentally retarded. The average IQ score is 100 adaptive functioning is measured by professionals by looking at what a child can do in comparison to other children of has / her age.
A child shall have the following skills to be labelled as having adaptive behaviour.
Daily Living SkillsEating, getting dressed, toilet training.
Communication Skills Understanding what is said and being able to answer accordingly.
Social Skills Ability to interact with parents, family, friends, adults etc.
Adaptive behaviour is measured by adaptive behaviour rating scale to measure adaptive behaviour, professionals use structured interviews to systematically elicit information about on individual's functioning the community from the people who know the individual well.
Accurate assessment of the quality of someone's adeptive behaviour require clinical judgement.